Boomerang
A boomerang used for hunting
is heavy and can be almost a meter wide.
Because it's edges are only slightly bevelled it flies
quite straight.   lt is capable of bringing down a large kangaroo.
The boomerang depicted here is a returning type initially used to scare
animals.  ln 1914 David Unaipon the first published Aboriginal writer who invented he
centrifugal motor anticipated development of the helicopter from principles of boomerang flight.
A very confounding things is a Boomerang does not need air to fly - see Boomerang Thrown in Space

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Aboriginal painting is well known for its "dot" style. yet this was initially native to Western Australia.  Aboriginals paint with bright colors in a symbolic style.



Australian Aboriginals had a culture before Europeans arrived.  ln fact it is the oldest known surviving culture on earth.  Tribes across the continent identified with a  particular animal, totems.  Ancestral Beings were also "worshigged"
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Various tools, weapons and art developed.  Aboriginal culture continues to change. Use of sticks to make fire was commonplace.  Tasmanian Aboriginals used fire but had to keep a flame going constantly. lf a group lost their fire they fought to regain it from others. Tasmanian Aboriginals were a different "race" from those who lived on the mainland.
     
lt is estimated that mainland Aboriginals have been in Australia for at least 60 000 years using stone technology and red ochre for painting.  Sharpening of flint for spear heads and choppers was still carried out until the 1950s.  This technology began quite recently about 5,000 years ago. Aboriginals remained isolated from peoples in the rest of the world.  They were probably the frst to leave Africa apart from Tasmanian Aboriginals,. A legacy left by Aboriginals has been a weapon used for hunting - the boomerang.

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STUMPY TAIL CATTLE DOG
TRANSLATE WEBPAGE
Dingo
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A mysterious formaton of lights becomes visible from tme to tme.  The lights appear from as far souih as Brewarrina to Boulia in the north.  Aboriginal story telling takes their origin back thousands of years.  Aboriginals say their frequency has increased since Europeans arrived. When a shotgun is used against them they disappear, reappearing later. visit australia.
An animal which frequents wet places in south east Australia, Similar 'beings" with different Aboriginal names are recounted throughout the country. Aboriginals cannot describe its features . It spends most of its time in water or marshy ground only attacking when disturbed.  Australasian newspaper stated  that a Bunyip caused a human death in 1851. visit australia.
This illusive creature walks upright on two legs. The center of its movement is Kilcoy, Queensland, a short distance from me. Aboriginals support its existence. It has long hair around its face and backward facing feet.  Aboriginals say, in the past there were many of them whom Aboriginals would scare off.  Yowies were in this land first.
Australians are proud of the Aussie hat, the Akubra, though many do not own one. It is hardly the sort of hat you would take to work in an office.  People in the outback wear the hats invented by the Dunkerley family In 1874.  Animal under-fur is made into felt. This is very strong making the hat almost indestructible. Note: Bigger the hat, smaller the cattle station.
These virtually waterproof coats were originally made for seafarers from treated saildoth by a Scot, E. LeRoy in 1898.  His friend Thomas Edward Pearson brought the concept to Australia. The coats are suited to the horsemen of the Blue Mountains where it is cold and wet. Though quite heavy they are comfortable to wear - used by Antarctic explorers.
For a hot couniry Australia sure makes some odd things. Ugg Boots are ideally suited for a Scandinavian clmate. Many Australians still buy them because it is an Aussie thing to do. They are made of sheepskin outside with original wool left: on the inside. They were made and sold by Australian Brian Smith in ihe 1970s, though they existed well before this.

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l am pleased that you are visiting Adventure Australia.  Drop-in again and enjoy the experience of Australia.   As well as the Sunshine Coast and Gold Coast in Queensland, there are many more things of interest. The apple-isle of Tasmania awaits your visit.  Taste wine made in the Barossa Valley, South Australia. See the Perth Mint and Swan River in Western Australia.  This is an exciting country to tour, whether formaally via organized trips, by backpack, or by staying at the best hotels.
Visit Australia and learn about the people, country, flora and fauna. If you have a return ticket you can stay in Australia for six months. This will give you time to visit Australia Zoo and take a 4WD tour of the outback to see red kangaroos and dingoes, or enjoy our beach lifestyle which is part of our heritage. See the Great Barrier Reef one of the world's wonders. Take a journey to Uluru in central Australia, the world's second largest monolith. Tourists always go to see the Sydney Harbour Bridge and the Opera House. Australia is a very large country, so plan your stay before you go. Then you can experience your holiday in confidence. Visit Australia.

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The ratio of cows to people is 1:1
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There is one kangaroo for each Australian.
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Sheep outnumber people  3:1.
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For each person there are 15 rabbits.
There are as many feral pigs as people
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This monument portraying a loyal dog is at Snake Gully near Gundagai. The original site was also near Gundagai. It was relocated to its present position when the Australian Prime Minister Joseph Lyons unveiled a bronze statue made at Oliver's Foundry of Sydney by stonemason Frank Rusconi in 1932. visit australia.

Like much of Australia's early folklore, the origins of the Dog on the Tuckerbox are clouded in mystery, uncertainty and controversy. Yet, as with Waltzing Matilda, its origins  lay frmly in the Australian bush and the early pioneers. visit australia. 

They were hard and hazardous times with supplies and stores having to be transported along makeshift tracks over rough terrain by bullock teams. To pass he time while often being bogged, or for the river level to fall at crossings such as Muttama Creek near Gundagai, bullockies would recite doggerel and rhymes picked up on their travels - and sometimes even write a few lines. The most famous poem was Bullocky Bill by Bowyang Yorke a pen name. Often on such occasions the bullocky's dog would sit guarding its master's tuckerbox and possessions while his master went away seeking help.
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As I was coming down Conroy's Gap,
l heard a maiden cry;
There goes Bill the Bullocky,
He's bound for Gundagai.
A better poor old beggar
Never earnt an honest crust,
A better poor old beggar
Never drug a whip through dust.
His team got bogged at the nine mile creek
Bill lashed and swore and cried;
‘If Nobby don‘t get me out of this,
I'll tattoo his bloody hide.'
But Nobby strained and broke the yoke,
And poked out the leader's eye;
Then the dog sat on the Tucker Box
Nine miles from Gundagai.
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Historically the Australian Cattle Dog was "created" by Thomas Hall who crossed his Northumberland blue merle dogs with dingoes. Jack Timmons was involved.  Hall started up grazing stations in New South Wales and later in Queensland.
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The dogs that Thomas Hall bred were de?nitely not blue merle.  "Merle" is a color pattern composed of irregular dark and medium blotches on a lighter background as in the Blue Merle Catahoula pictured.  It can also be black with lighter blotches.  It cannot be white/gray with red or blue speckles as in the Australian Cattle Dog. Furthermore, the Northumberland merle is a collie.  Hall's English foundation breed was probably the ancestor of the 'modern' English working-dog (probably a pre-collie} which is much like the Australian Heeler, though not so "heavy-boned".
Australian Cattle Dogs are Red and Blue Heelers, though in general conversation the red kind is generally also called a Blue Heeler. An old term is Queensland Heeler because Thomas Hall established the breed mainly in that state in the 1840s.  Their hardiness could be due to crossing with domesticated dingoes. This is taken as given.  No real proof of this has ever been obtained.  It is said that Heelers have short tails and dingoes do not, but non-show Heelers have their tails docked as a matter of common practice.  A genetic evaluation would be illuminating.  Heelers do not have the collie shepherd gene pattern.  A collie is quite different.
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Officially, a drover John/Jack Timmins bred English Smithfield Cattle Dogs with dingoes which were later crossed with collies.   Noreen Clark states that Stumpies came from Heelers.  Their stance is largely taught.  Stumpy Tail breeders have intentionally bred this dog to be a breed in its own right.  In my view, however, it is still a Heeler.  The head could be said to be similar to a dingo, but the dingo is an early branch of a dog.  A dingo has medium length soft fur.  The fur of Heelers is a lot harsher and tougher. visit australia.
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In 1879 William Allen brought a pair of black and tan prick-ear dogs to New South Wales from Scotland.  A variant on this is that three pairs of working "collies' were imported from Scotland by John Rutherford.  A dog named Kelpie from these was mated with a dog called Caesar from the Allens by Mr. J. D. Gleeson.  Legend has it that they were bred with foxes. Again they are said to be from collies, but just a cursory look shows there is no collie there.  The Kelpie breed was established 15 years before the British collie. There is a red form and a black and tan.  Both have smooth, short, or rough coats. Work them hard and, oddly, their coats stay clean!
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To make things more complicated there is a working type and a show class of Kelpie.  The pictures indicate a hardiness for the working dog and a softness in the show specimen.  Show Kelpies are also of solid color with shorter legs.  They are not heavier as claimed.  Head stance is learned. visit australia.
All countries have pride in their dogs.  Many countries do have special breeds they call their own. The British Bulldog and the German Alsation are examples.  There is a tendency for things Australian to become myths in themselves. The Australian Blue Heeler is no exception.  The two main things that contribute to this myth are the dingo and Northumberland collie.  Blue Heelers are dogs "created" by careful selection of imported dogs, for the most part from Britain - no dingo and no collie.  The modern collie was developed from unspecified dogs much later:  collies have long coats while Australian cattle dogs have short coats. visit australia.
The Woomera was used an an extension of the arm to throw a spear with increased force.  A "spike" in the end of the woomera fitted into the back end of the spear. visit australia.
Boomerangs that return to the thrower are lighter than the hunting type.  The theory s that due to curved edges, front and back on one side of the boomerang, each "blade" acts like the aerofoil of an aircraft wing, producing a vacuum on the curved side and lift underneath.  Note, however, the video brings current scientific explanations into question.   The Space Station has no gravity but it does have air.  A test in a vacuum with no gravity would be interesting.  The theory of how a boomerang works is complex, though it is believed that one wing "cuts" through undisturbed air while making disturbed air for the other wing. Some claim that the leading wing gets more lift, but this is not the case. A right handed thrower holds the boomerang above the head, 30 degrees outward from the vertical, with the bevelled edged side toward the body. He throws, aiming tree height, and the returning wing on the inside of the anti-clockwise curve [at the bottom} actually lifts upward from the almost vertical to the horizontal. visit australia.
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Black & Tan Working Kelpie
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Woomera
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